by Keyword: CRISPR

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Gómez-Domínguez, D., Epifano, C., Miguel, F., Castaño, A. G., Vilaplana-Martí, B., Martín, A., Amarilla-Quintana, S., Bertrand, A. T., Bonne, G., Ramón-Azcón, J., Rodríguez-Milla, M. A., Pérez de Castro, I., (2020). Consequences of Lmna exon 4 mutations in myoblast function Cells 9, (5), 1286

Laminopathies are causally associated with mutations on the Lamin A/C gene (LMNA). To date, more than 400 mutations in LMNA have been reported in patients. These mutations are widely distributed throughout the entire gene and are associated with a wide range of phenotypes. Unfortunately, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effect of the majority of these mutations. This is the case of more than 40 mutations that are located at exon 4. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we generated a collection of Lmna exon 4 mutants in mouse C2C12 myoblasts. These cell models included different types of exon 4 deletions and the presence of R249W mutation, one of the human variants associated with a severe type of laminopathy, LMNA-associated congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD). We characterized these clones by measuring their nuclear circularity, myogenic differentiation capacity in 2D and 3D conditions, DNA damage, and levels of p-ERK and p-AKT (phosphorylated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/3 and AKT serine/threonine kinase 1). Our results indicated that Lmna exon 4 mutants showed abnormal nuclear morphology. In addition, levels and/or subcellular localization of different members of the lamin and LINC (LInker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton) complex were altered in all these mutants. Whereas no significant differences were observed for ERK and AKT activities, the accumulation of DNA damage was associated to the Lmna p.R249W mutant myoblasts. Finally, significant myogenic differentiation defects were detected in the Lmna exon 4 mutants. These results have key implications in the development of future therapeutic strategies for the treatment of laminopathies.

Keywords: CRISPR, Laminopathy, LMNA, Nuclear envelope

Garreta, E., González, F., Montserrat, N., (2018). Studying kidney disease using tissue and genome engineering in human pluripotent stem cells Nephron 138, 48-59

Kidney morphogenesis and patterning have been extensively studied in animal models such as the mouse and zebrafish. These seminal studies have been key to define the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex multistep process. Based on this knowledge, the last 3 years have witnessed the development of a cohort of protocols allowing efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) towards defined kidney progenitor populations using two-dimensional (2D) culture systems or through generating organoids. Kidney organoids are three-dimensional (3D) kidney-like tissues, which are able to partially recapitulate kidney structure and function in vitro. The current possibility to combine state-of-the art tissue engineering with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated systems 9 (Cas9)-mediated genome engineering provides an unprecedented opportunity for studying kidney disease with hPSCs. Recently, hPSCs with genetic mutations introduced through CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering have shown to produce kidney organoids able to recapitulate phenotypes of polycystic kidney disease and glomerulopathies. This mini review provides an overview of the most recent advances in differentiation of hPSCs into kidney lineages, and the latest implementation of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the organoid setting, as promising platforms to study human kidney development and disease.

Keywords: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated systems 9, Disease modeling, Gene editing, Human pluripotent stem cells, Kidney genetics, Tissue engineering

González, F., (2016). CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells: Harnessing human genetics in a dish Developmental Dynamics , 245, (7), 788-806

Abstract: Because of their extraordinary differentiation potential, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can differentiate into virtually any cell type of the human body, providing a powerful platform not only for generating relevant cell types useful for cell replacement therapies, but also for modeling human development and disease. Expanding this potential, structures resembling human organs, termed organoids, have been recently obtained from hPSCs through tissue engineering. Organoids exhibit multiple cell types self-organizing into structures recapitulating in part the physiology and the cellular interactions observed in the organ in vivo, offering unprecedented opportunities for human disease modeling. To fulfill this promise, tissue engineering in hPSCs needs to be supported by robust and scalable genome editing technologies. With the advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, manipulating the genome of hPSCs has now become an easy task, allowing modifying their genome with superior precision, speed, and throughput. Here we review current and potential applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in hPSCs and how they contribute to establish hPSCs as a model of choice for studying human genetics.

Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9, Disease modeling, Human genetics, Human pluripotent stem cells, Tissue and genome engineering