by Keyword: Calcium phosphate glass
Marti-Muñoz, Joan, Xuriguera, Elena, Layton, John W., Planell, Josep A., Rankin, Stephen E., Engel, Elisabeth, Castaño, Oscar, (2019). Feasible and pure P2O5-CaO nanoglasses: An in-depth NMR study of synthesis for the modulation of the bioactive ion release Acta Biomaterialia 94, 574-584
The use of bioactive glasses (e.g. silicates, phosphates, borates) has demonstrated to be an effective therapy for the restoration of bone fractures, wound healing and vascularization. Their partial dissolution towards the surrounding tissue has shown to trigger positive bioactive responses, without the necessity of using growth factors or cell therapy, which reduces money-costs, side effects and increases their translation to the clinics. However, bioactive glasses often need from stabilizers (e.g. SiO44−, Ti4+, Co2+, etc.) that are not highly abundant in the body and which metabolization is not fully understood. In this study, we were focused on synthesizing pure calcium phosphate glasses without the presence of such stabilizers. We combined a mixture of ethylphosphate and calcium 2-methoxyethoxide to synthesize nanoparticles with different compositions and degradability. Synthesis was followed by an in-depth nuclear magnetic resonance characterization, complemented with other techniques that helped us to correlate the chemical structure of the glasses with their physiochemical properties and reaction mechanism. After synthesis, the organically modified xerogel (i.e. calcium monoethylphosphate) was treated at 200 or 350 °C and its solubility was maintained and controlled due to the elimination of organics, increase of phosphate-calcium interactions and phosphate polycondensation. To the best of our knowledge, we are reporting the first sol-gel synthesis of binary (P2O5-CaO) calcium phosphate glass nanoparticles in terms of continuous polycondensated phosphate chains structure without the addition of extra ions. The main goal is to straightforward the synthesis, to get a safer metabolization and to modulate the bioactive ion release. Additionally, we shed light on the chemical structure, reaction mechanism and properties of calcium phosphate glasses with high calcium contents, which nowadays are poorly understood.
Statement of Significance
The use of bioactive inorganic materials (i.e. bioactive ceramics, glass-ceramics and glasses) for biomedical applications is attractive due to their good integration with the host tissue without the necessity of adding exogenous cells or growth factors. In particular, degradable calcium phosphate glasses are completely resorbable, avoiding the retention in the body of the highly stable silica network of silicate glasses, and inducing a more controllable degradability than bioactive ceramics. However, most calcium phosphate glasses include the presence of stabilizers (e.g. Ti4+, Na+, Co2+), which metabolization is not fully understood and complicates their synthesis. The development of binary calcium phosphate glasses with controlled degradability reduces these limitations, offering a simple and completely metabolizable material with higher transfer to the clinics.
Keywords: Calcium phosphate glasses, Sol-gel process, NMR spectroscopy, Ion release, Biomaterials
Barbeck, Mike, Serra, Tiziano, Booms, Patrick, Stojanovic, Sanja, Najman, Stevo, Engel, Elisabeth, Sader, Robert, Kirkpatrick, Charles James, Navarro, Melba, Ghanaati, Shahram, (2017). Analysis of the in vitro degradation and the in vivo tissue response to bi-layered 3D-printed scaffolds combining PLA and biphasic PLA/bioglass components – Guidance of the inflammatory response as basis for osteochondral regeneration Bioactive Materials , 2, (4), 208-223
Abstract The aim of the present study was the inÂ vitro and inÂ vivo analysis of a bi-layered 3D-printed scaffold combining a PLA layer and a biphasic PLA/bioglass G5 layer for regeneration of osteochondral defects inÂ vivo Focus of the inÂ vitro analysis was on the (molecular) weight loss and the morphological and mechanical variations after immersion in SBF. The inÂ vivo study focused on analysis of the tissue reactions and differences in the implant bed vascularization using an established subcutaneous implantation model in CD-1 mice and established histological and histomorphometrical methods. Both scaffold parts kept their structural integrity, while changes in morphology were observed, especially for the PLA/G5 scaffold. Mechanical properties decreased with progressive degradation, while the PLA/G5 scaffolds presented higher compressive modulus than PLA scaffolds. The tissue reaction to PLA included low numbers of BMGCs and minimal vascularization of its implant beds, while the addition of G5 lead to higher numbers of BMGCs and a higher implant bed vascularization. Analysis revealed that the use of a bi-layered scaffold shows the ability to observe distinct inÂ vivo response despite the physical proximity of PLA and PLA/G5 layers. Altogether, the results showed that the addition of G5 enables to reduce scaffold weight loss and to increase mechanical strength. Furthermore, the addition of G5 lead to a higher vascularization of the implant bed required as basis for bone tissue regeneration mediated by higher numbers of BMGCs, while within the PLA parts a significantly lower vascularization was found optimally for chondral regeneration. Thus, this data show that the analyzed bi-layered scaffold may serve as an ideal basis for the regeneration of osteochondral tissue defects. Additionally, the results show that it might be able to reduce the number of experimental animals required as it may be possible to analyze the tissue response to more than one implant in one experimental animal.
Keywords: Bioactive glass, Polylactic acid (PLA), Bi-layer scaffold, Multinucleated giant cells, Bone substitute, Vascularization, Calcium phosphate glass
Castaño, O., Sachot, N., Xuriguera, E., Engel, E., Planell, J. A., Park, J. H., Jin, G. Z., Kim, T. H., Kim, J. H., Kim, H. W., (2014). Angiogenesis in bone regeneration: Tailored calcium release in hybrid fibrous scaffolds ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6, (10), 7512-7522
In bone regeneration, silicon-based calcium phosphate glasses (Bioglasses) have been widely used since the 1970s. However, they dissolve very slowly because of their high amount of Si (SiO2 > 45%). Recently, our group has found that calcium ions released by the degradation of glasses in which the job of silicon is done by just 5% of TiO2 are effective angiogenic promoters, because of their stimulation of a cell-membrane calcium sensing receptor (CaSR). Based on this, other focused tests on angiogenesis have found that Bioglasses also have the potential to be angiogenic promoters even with high contents of silicon (80%); however, their slow degradation is still a problem, as the levels of silicon cannot be decreased any lower than 45%. In this work, we propose a new generation of hybrid organically modified glasses, ormoglasses, that enable the levels of silicon to be reduced, therefore speeding up the degradation process. Using electrospinning as a faithful way to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM), we successfully produced hybrid fibrous mats with three different contents of Si (40, 52, and 70%), and thus three different calcium ion release rates, using an ormoglass–polycaprolactone blend approach. These mats offered a good platform to evaluate different calcium release rates as osteogenic promoters in an in vivo subcutaneous environment. Complementary data were collected to complement Ca2+ release analysis, such as stiffness evaluation by AFM, ζ-potential, morphology evaluation by FESEM, proliferation and differentiation analysis, as well as in vivo subcutaneous implantations. Material and biological characterization suggested that compositions of organic/inorganic hybrid materials with a Si content equivalent to 40%, which were also those that released more calcium, were osteogenic. They also showed a greater ability to form blood vessels. These results suggest that Si-based ormoglasses can be considered an efficient tool for calcium release modulation, which could play a key role in the angiogenic promoting process.
Keywords: Biological materials, Blood vessels, Calcium, Electrospinning, Glass, Hybrid materials, Silicon oxides, Sol-gel process, Sol-gels, Angiogenesis, Biological characterization, Calcium phosphate glass, Calcium-sensing receptors, Degradation process, Extracellular matrices, Organic/inorganic hybrid materials, ormoglasses, Silicon
Sanzana, E. S., Navarro, M., Ginebra, M. P., Planell, J. A., Ojeda, A. C., Montecinos, H. A., (2014). Role of porosity and pore architecture in the in vivo bone regeneration capacity of biodegradable glass scaffolds Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A , 102, (6), 1767-1773
The aim of this work is to shed light on the role of porosity and pore architecture in the in vivo bone regeneration capacity of biodegradable glass scaffolds. A calcium phosphate glass in the system P2O5-CaO-Na2O-TiO2 was foamed using two different porogens, namely albumen and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); the resulting three-dimensional porous structures were characterized and implanted in New Zealand rabbits to study their in vivo behavior. Scaffolds foamed with albumen displayed a monomodal pore size distribution centered around 150 Î¼m and a porosity of 82%, whereas scaffolds foamed with H2O2 showed lower porosity (37%), with larger elongated pores, and multimodal size distribution. After 12 weeks of implantation, histology results revealed a good osteointegration for both types of scaffolds. The quantitative morphometric analysis showed the substitution of the biomaterial by new bone in the case of glasses foamed with albumen. In contrast, bone neoformation and material resorption were significantly lower in the defects filled with the scaffolds foamed with H2O2. The results obtained in this study showed that both calcium phosphate glass scaffolds were osteoconductive, biocompatible, and biodegradable materials. However, differences in porosity, pore architecture, and microstructure led to substantially different in vivo response.
Keywords: Bone substitutes, Calcium phosphate glasses, in vivo, Scaffolds, Tissue engineering
Aguirre, A., Gonzalez, A., Navarro, M., Castano, O., Planell, J. A., Engel, E., (2012). Control of microenvironmental cues with a smart biomaterial composite promotes endothelial progenitor cell angiogenesis European Cells & Materials , 24, 90-106
Smart biomaterials play a key role when aiming at successful tissue repair by means of regenerative medicine approaches, and are expected to contain chemical as well as mechanical cues that will guide the regenerative process. Recent advances in the understanding of stem cell biology and mechanosensing have shed new light onto the importance of the local microenvironment in determining cell fate. Herein we report the biological properties of a bioactive, biodegradable calcium phosphate glass/polylactic acid composite biomaterial that promotes bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilisation, differentiation and angiogenesis through the creation of a controlled bone healing-like microenvironment. The angiogenic response is triggered by biochemical and mechanical cues provided by the composite, which activate two synergistic cell signalling pathways: a biochemical one mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor and a mechanosensitive one regulated by non-muscle myosin II contraction. Together, these signals promote a synergistic response by activating EPCs-mediated VEGF and VEGFR-2 synthesis, which in turn promote progenitor cell homing, differentiation and tubulogenesis. These findings highlight the importance of controlling microenvironmental cues for stem/progenitor cell tissue engineering and offer exciting new therapeutical opportunities for biomaterialbased vascularisation approaches and clinical applications.
Keywords: Calcium phosphate glass composite, Smart biomaterial, Endothelial progenitor cell, Angiogenesis, Mechanosensing, Calcium-sensing receptor