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by Keyword: Cannabis


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Blithikioti, C., Miquel, L., Batalla, A., Rubio, B., Maffei, G., Herreros, I., Gual, A., Verschure, P., Balcells-Oliveró, M., (2019). Cerebellar alterations in cannabis users: A systematic review Addiction Biology 24, (6), 1121-1137

Cannabis is the most used illicit substance in the world. As many countries are moving towards decriminalization, it is crucial to determine whether and how cannabis use affects human brain and behavior. The role of the cerebellum in cognition, emotion, learning, and addiction is increasingly recognized. Because of its high density in CB1 receptors, it is expected to be highly affected by cannabis use. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate how cannabis use affects cerebellar structure and function, as well as cerebellar-dependent behavioral tasks. Three databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature published until March 2018. We included studies that focused on cannabis effects on cerebellar structure, function, or cerebellar-dependent behavioral tasks. A total of 348 unique records were screened, and 40 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. The most consistent findings include (1) increases in cerebellar gray matter volume after chronic cannabis use, (2) alteration of cerebellar resting state activity after acute or chronic use, and (3) deficits in memory, decision making, and associative learning. Age of onset and higher exposure to cannabis use were frequently associated with increased cannabis-induced alterations. Chronic cannabis use is associated with alterations in cerebellar structure and function, as well as with deficits in behavioral paradigms that involve the cerebellum (eg, eyeblink conditioning, memory, and decision making). Future studies should consider tobacco as confounding factor and use standardized methods for assessing cannabis use. Paradigms exploring the functional activity of the cerebellum may prove useful as monitoring tools of cannabis-induced impairment.

Keywords: Behavior, Cannabis use, Cerebellum, Cognitive function, Structure


Herreros, Ivan, Miquel, Laia, Blithikioti, Chrysanthi, Nuño, Laura, Rubio Ballester, Belen, Grechuta, Klaudia, Gual, Antoni, Balcells-Oliveró, Mercè, Verschure, P., (2019). Motor adaptation impairment in chronic cannabis users assessed by a visuomotor rotation task Journal of Clinical Medicine 8, (7), 1049

Background—The cerebellum has been recently suggested as an important player in the addiction brain circuit. Cannabis is one of the most used drugs worldwide, and its long-term effects on the central nervous system are not fully understood. No valid clinical evaluations of cannabis impact on the brain are available today. The cerebellum is expected to be one of the brain structures that are highly affected by prolonged exposure to cannabis, due to its high density in endocannabinoid receptors. We aim to use a motor adaptation paradigm to indirectly assess cerebellar function in chronic cannabis users (CCUs). Methods—We used a visuomotor rotation (VMR) task that probes a putatively-cerebellar implicit motor adaptation process together with the learning and execution of an explicit aiming rule. We conducted a case-control study, recruiting 18 CCUs and 18 age-matched healthy controls. Our main measure was the angular aiming error. Results—Our results show that CCUs have impaired implicit motor adaptation, as they showed a smaller rate of adaptation compared with healthy controls (drift rate: 19.3 +/− 6.8° vs. 27.4 +/− 11.6°; t(26) = −2.1, p = 0.048, Cohen’s d = −0.8, 95% CI = (−1.7, −0.15)). Conclusions—We suggest that a visuomotor rotation task might be the first step towards developing a useful tool for the detection of alterations in implicit learning among cannabis users.

Keywords: Cerebellum, Cannabis, Implicit motor learning, Motor adaptation, Visuomotor rotation


Contreras, M. D. M., Jurado-Campos, N., Sánchez-Carnerero Callado, C., Arroyo-Manzanares, N., Fernández, L., Casano, S., Marco, S., Arce, L., Ferreiro-Vera, C., (2018). Thermal desorption-ion mobility spectrometry: A rapid sensor for the detection of cannabinoids and discrimination of Cannabis sativa L. chemotypes Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 273, 1413-1424

Existing analytical techniques used for the determination of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabis) plants mostly rely on chromatography-based methods. As a rapid alternative for the direct analysis of them, thermal desorption (TD)-ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was used for obtaining spectral fingerprints of single cannabinoids from Cannabis plant extracts and from plant residues on hands after their manipulation. The ionization source was 63Ni, with automatic switchable polarity. Although in both ionization modes there were signals in the TD-IMS spectra of the plant extracts and residues that could be assigned to concrete cannabinoids and chemotypes, most of them could not be clearly distinguished. Alternatively, the global spectral data of the plant extracts and residues were pre-processed and then, using principal component analysis (PCA)-linear discriminant analysis (LDA), grouped in function of their chemotype in a more feasible way. Using this approach, the possibility of false positive responses was also studied analyzing other non-Cannabis plants and tobacco, which were clustered in a different group to those of Cannabis. Therefore, TD-IMS, as analytical tool, and PCA-LDA, as a strategy for data reduction and pattern recognition, can be applied for on-site chemotaxonomic discrimination of Cannabis varieties and detection of illegal marijuana since the IMS equipment is portable and the analysis time is highly short.

Keywords: Cannabis sativa L., Cannabinoids, Chemometrics, ChemotypeIon mobility spectrometry