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Blanco-Almazan, D., Groenendaal, W., Catthoor, F., Jane, R., (2019). Wearable bioimpedance measurement for respiratory monitoring during inspiratory loading IEEE Access 7, 89487-89496

Bioimpedance is an unobtrusive noninvasive technique to measure respiration and has a linear relation with volume during normal breathing. The objective of this paper was to assess this linear relation during inspiratory loading protocol and determine the best electrode configuration for bioimpedance measurement. The inspiratory load is a way to estimate inspiratory muscle function and has been widely used in studies of respiratory mechanics. Therefore, this protocol permitted us to evaluate bioimpedance performance under breathing pattern changes. We measured four electrode configurations of bioimpedance and airflow simultaneously in ten healthy subjects using a wearable device and a standard wired laboratory acquisition system, respectively. The subjects were asked to perform an incremental inspiratory threshold loading protocol during the measurements. The load values were selected to increase progressively until the 60% of the subject's maximal inspiratory pressure. The linear relation of the signals was assessed by Pearson correlation (r ) and the waveform agreement by the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), both computed cycle by cycle. The results showed a median greater than 0.965 in r coefficients and lower than 11 % in the MAPE values for the entire population in all loads and configurations. Thus, a strong linear relation was found during all loaded breathing and configurations. However, one out of the four electrode configurations showed robust results in terms of agreement with volume during the highest load. In conclusion, bioimpedance measurement using a wearable device is a noninvasive and a comfortable alternative to classical methods for monitoring respiratory diseases in normal and restrictive breathing.

Keywords: Bioimpedance, Chronic respiratory diseases, Electrode configurations, Inspiratory threshold protocol, Wearable