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Estrada-Petrocelli, L., Jané, R., Torres, A., (2020). Neural respiratory drive estimation in respiratory sEMG with cardiac arrhythmias Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC) 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Montreal, Canada) , 2748-2751

Neural respiratory drive as measured by the electromyography allows the study of the imbalance between the load on respiratory muscles and its capacity. Surface respiratory electromyography (sEMG) is a non-invasive tool used for indirectly assessment of NRD. It also provides a way to evaluate the level and pattern of respiratory muscle activation. The prevalence of electrocardiographic activity (ECG) in respiratory sEMG signals hinders its proper evaluation. Moreover, the occurrence of abnormal heartbeats or cardiac arrhythmias in respiratory sEMG measures can make even more challenging the NRD estimation. Respiratory sEMG can be evaluated using the fixed sample entropy (fSampEn), a technique which is less affected by cardiac artefacts. The aim of this work was to investigate the performance of the fSampEn, the root mean square (RMS) and the average rectified value (ARV) on respiratory sEMG signals with supraventricular arrhythmias (SVA) for NRD estimation. fSampEn, ARV and RMS parameters increased as the inspiratory load increased during the test. fSampEn was less influenced by ECG with SVAs for the NRD estimation showing a greater response to respiratory sEMG, reflected with a higher percentage increase with increasing load (228 % total increase, compared to 142 % and 135 % for ARV and RMS, respectively).

Keywords: Electrocardiography, Muscles, Electrodes, Estimation, Band-pass filters, Electromyography, Heart beat

Romero, D., Jané, R., (2019). Non-linear HRV analysis to quantify the effects of intermittent hypoxia using an OSA rat model Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Berlín, Germany) , 4994-4997

In this paper, a non-linear HRV analysis was performed to assess fragmentation signatures observed in heartbeat time series after intermittent hypoxia (IH). Three markers quantifying short-term fragmentation levels, PIP, IALS and PSS, were evaluated on R-R interval series obtained in a rat model of recurrent apnea. Through airway obstructions, apnea episodes were periodically simulated in six anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. The number of apnea events per hour (AHI index) was varied during the first half of the experiment while apnea episodes lasted 15 s. For the second part, apnea episodes lasted 5, 10 or 15 s, but the AHI index was fixed. Recurrent apnea was repeated for 15-min time intervals in all cases, alternating with basal periods of the same duration. The fragmentation markers were evaluated in segments of 5 minutes, selected at the beginning and end of the experiment. The impact of the heart and breathing rates (HR and BR, respectively) on the parameter estimates was also investigated. The results obtained show a significant increase (from 5 to 10%, p <; 0.05) in fragmentation measures of heartbeat time series after IH, indicating a clear deterioration of the initial conditions. Moreover, there was a strong linear relationship (r > 0.9) between these markers and BR, as well as with the ratio given by HR/BR. Although fragmentation may be impacted by IH, we found that it is highly dependent on HR and BR values and thus, they should be considered during its calculation or used to normalize the fragmentation estimates.

Keywords: Rats, Time series analysis, Radio access technologies, Protocols, Heart beat

Sola-Soler, J., Giraldo, B. F., Fiz, J. A., Jané, R., (2015). Cardiorespiratory Phase Synchronization in OSA subjects during wake and sleep states Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Milan, Italy) , 7708-7711

Cardiorespiratory Phase Synchronization (CRPS) is a manifestation of coupling between cardiac and respiratory systems complementary to Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia. In this work, we investigated CRPS during wake and sleep stages in Polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of 30 subjects suspected from Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The population was classified into three severity groups according to the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI): G1 (AHI<;15), G2 (15<;=AHI<;30) and G3 (AHI>30). The synchrogram between single lead ECG and respiratory abdominal band signals from PSG was computed with the Hilbert transform technique. The different phase locking ratios (PLR) m:n were monitored throughout the night. Ratio 4:1 was the most frequent and it became more dominant as OSA severity increased. CRPS was characterized by the percentage of synchronized time (%Sync) and the average duration of synchronized epochs (AvDurSync) using three different thresholds. Globally, we observed that %Sync significantly decreased and AvDurSync slightly increased with OSA severity. A high synchronization threshold enhanced these population differences. %Sync was significantly higher in NREM than in REM sleep in G2 and G3 groups. Population differences observed during sleep did not translate to the initial wake state. Reduced CRPS could be an early marker of OSA severity during sleep, but further studies are needed to determine whether CRPS is also present during wakefulness.

Keywords: Band-pass filters, Electrocardiography, Heart beat, Sleep apnea, Sociology, Statistics, Synchronization