by Keyword: Mouth

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Estrada, L., Torres, A., Garcia-Casado, J., Sarlabous, L., Prats-Boluda, G., Jané, R., (2016). Time-frequency representations of the sternocleidomastoid muscle electromyographic signal recorded with concentric ring electrodes Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Orlando, USA) , 3785-3788

The use of non-invasive methods for the study of respiratory muscle signals can provide clinical information for the evaluation of the respiratory muscle function. The aim of this study was to evaluate time-frequency characteristics of the electrical activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle recorded superficially by means of concentric ring electrodes (CREs) in a bipolar configuration. The CREs enhance the spatial resolution, attenuate interferences, as the cardiac activity, and also simplify the orientation problem associated to the electrode location. Five healthy subjects underwent a respiratory load test in which an inspiratory load was imposed during the inspiratory phase. During the test, the electromyographic signal of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (EMGsc) and the inspiratory mouth pressure (Pmouth) were acquired. Time-frequency characteristics of the EMGsc signal were analyzed by means of eight time-frequency representations (TFRs): the spectrogram (SPEC), the Morlet scalogram (SCAL), the Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD), the Choi-Williams distribution (CHWD), two generalized exponential distributions (GED1 and GED2), the Born-Jordan distribution (BJD) and the Cone-Kernel distribution (CKD). The instantaneous central frequency of the EMGsc showed an increasing behavior during the inspiratory cycle and with the increase of the inspiratory load. The bilinear TFRs (WVD, CHWD, GEDs and BJD) were less sensitive to cardiac activity interference than classical TFRs (SPEC and SCAL). The GED2 was the TFR that shown the best results for the characterization of the instantaneous central frequency of the EMGsc.

Keywords: Electrodes, Interference, Kernel, Mouth, Muscles, Spectrogram, Time-frequency analysis

Estrada, L., Torres, A., Sarlabous, L., Jané, R., (2015). EMG-derived respiration signal using the fixed sample entropy during an Inspiratory load protocol Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Milan, Italy) , 1703-1706

Extracting clinical information from one single measurement represents a step forward in the assessment of the respiratory muscle function. This attracting idea entails the reduction of the instrumentation and fosters to develop new medical integrated technologies. We present the use of the fixed sample entropy (fSampEn) as a more direct method to non-invasively derive the breathing activity from the diaphragm electromyographic (EMGdi) signal, and thus to extract the respiratory rate, an important vital sign which is cumbersome and time-consuming to be measured by clinicians. fSampEn is a method to evaluate the EMGdi activity that is less sensitive to the cardiac activity (ECG) and its application has proven to be useful to evaluate the load of the respiratory muscles. The behavior of the proposed method was tested in signals from two subjects that performed an inspiratory load protocol, which consists of increments in the inspiratory mouth pressure (Pmouth). Two respiratory signals were derived and compared to the Pmouth signal: the ECG-derived respiration (EDR) signal from the lead-I configuration, and the EMG-derived respiration (EMGDR) signal by applying the fSampEn method over the EMGdi signal. The similitude and the lag between signals were calculated through the cross-correlation between each derived respiratory signal and the Pmouth. The EMGDR signal showed higher correlation and lower lag values (≥ 0.91 and ≤ 0.70 s, respectively) than the EDR signal (≥ 0.83 and ≤0.99 s, respectively). Additionally, the respiratory rate was estimated with the Pmouth, EDR and EMGDR signals showing very similar values. The results from this preliminary work suggest that the fSampEn method can be used to derive the respiration waveform from the respiratory muscle electrical activity.

Keywords: Band-pass filters, Electrocardiography, Electromyography, Entropy, Mouth, Muscles, Protocols