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Llopis-Lorente, A., García-Fernández, A., Murillo-Cremaes, N., Hortelão, A. C., Patinño, T., Villalonga, R., Sancenón, F., Martínez-Máñer, R., Sánchez, S., (2019). Enzyme-powered gated mesoporous silica nanomotors for on-command intracellular payload delivery ACS Nano 13, (10), 12171-12183

The introduction of stimuli-responsive cargo release capabilities on self-propelled micro- and nanomotors holds enormous potential in a number of applications in the biomedical field. Herein, we report the preparation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles gated with pH-responsive supramolecular nanovalves and equipped with urease enzymes which act as chemical engines to power the nanomotors. The nanoparticles are loaded with different cargo molecules ([Ru(bpy)3]Cl2 (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) or doxorubicin), grafted with benzimidazole groups on the outer surface, and capped by the formation of inclusion complexes between benzimidazole and cyclodextrin-modified urease. The nanomotor exhibits enhanced Brownian motion in the presence of urea. Moreover, no cargo is released at neutral pH, even in the presence of the biofuel urea, due to the blockage of the pores by the bulky benzimidazole:cyclodextrin-urease caps. Cargo delivery is only triggered on-command at acidic pH due to the protonation of benzimidazole groups, the dethreading of the supramolecular nanovalves, and the subsequent uncapping of the nanoparticles. Studies with HeLa cells indicate that the presence of biofuel urea enhances nanoparticle internalization and both [Ru(bpy)3]Cl2 or doxorubicin intracellular release due to the acidity of lysosomal compartments. Gated enzyme-powered nanomotors shown here display some of the requirements for ideal drug delivery carriers such as the capacity to self-propel and the ability to “sense” the environment and deliver the payload on demand in response to predefined stimuli.

Keywords: Controlled release, Drug delivery, Enzymatic catalysis, Gatekeepers, Nanocarriers, Nanomotors, Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials