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by Keyword: Standards


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Calvo, M., Cano, I., Hernández, C., Ribas, V., Miralles, F., Roca, J., Jané, R., (2019). Class imbalance impact on the prediction of complications during home hospitalization: A comparative study Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Berlín, Germany) , 3446-3449

Home hospitalization (HH) is presented as a healthcare alternative capable of providing high standards of care when patients no longer need hospital facilities. Although HH seems to lower healthcare costs by shortening hospital stays and improving patient's quality of life, the lack of continuous observation at home may lead to complications in some patients. Since blood tests have been proven to provide relevant prognosis information in many diseases, this paper analyzes the impact of different sampling methods on the prediction of HH outcomes. After a first exploratory analysis, some variables extracted from routine blood tests performed at the moment of HH admission, such as hemoglobin, lymphocytes or creatinine, were found to unmask statistically significant differences between patients undergoing successful and unsucessful HH stays. Then, predictive models were built with these data, in order to identify unsuccessful cases eventually needing hospital facilities. However, since these hospital admissions during HH programs are rare, their identification through conventional machine-learning approaches is challenging. Thus, several sampling strategies designed to face class imbalance were herein overviewed and compared. Among the analyzed approaches, over-sampling strategies, such as ROSE (Random Over-Sampling Examples) and conventional random over-sampling, showed the best performances. Nevertheless, further improvements should be proposed in the future so as to better identify those patients not benefiting from HH.

Keywords: Hospitals, Blood, Training, Standards, Diseases, Prognostics and health management


Estrada, L., Sarlabous, L., Lozano-García, M., Jané, R., Torres, A., (2019). Neural offset time evaluation in surface respiratory signals during controlled respiration Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Berlín, Germany) , 2344-2347

The electrical activity of the diaphragm measured by surface electromyography (sEMGdi) provides indirect information on neural respiratory drive. Moreover, it allows evaluating the ventilatory pattern from the onset and offset (ntoff) estimation of the neural inspiratory time. sEMGdi amplitude variation was quantified using the fixed sample entropy (fSampEn), a less sensitive method to the interference from cardiac activity. The detection of the ntoff is controversial, since it is located in an intermediate point between the maximum value and the cessation of sEMGdi inspiratory activity, evaluated by the fSampEn. In this work ntoff detection has been analyzed using thresholds between 40% and 100 % of the fSampEn peak. Furthermore, fSampEn was evaluated analyzing the r parameter from 0.05 to 0.6, using a m equal to 1 and a sliding window size equal to 250 ms. The ntoff has been compared to the offset time (toff) obtained from the airflow during a controlled respiratory protocol varying the fractional inspiratory time from 0.54 to 0.18 whilst the respiratory rate was constant at 16 bpm. Results show that the optimal threshold values were between 66.0 % to 77.0 % of the fSampEn peak value. r values between 0.25 to 0.50 were found suitable to be used with the fSampEn.

Keywords: Protocols, Low pass filters, Electrodes, Standards, Band-pass filters, Muscles, Cutoff frequency


Calvo, M., Jané, R., (2019). Sleep stage influence on the autonomic modulation of sleep apnea syndrome 2019 Computing in Cardiology (CinC) , IEEE (Singapore, Singapore) , 1-4

Hypoxia induced by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to the deregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), resulting in an abnormally increased sympathetic activity. Since ANS modulation varies throughout the night, notably for each sleep stage, the hypno-gram and heart rate signals of 81 OSA patients were collected during a polysomnography. They were classified as mild-moderate (n=44) or severe (n=37) based on their apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) series were extracted by a time-frequency approach. These series were then averaged for each sleep stage, in order to compare the sympathetic modulation of mild-moderate and severe patients at the following phases: rapid eye movement (REM), S1, S2 and SWS (slow wave sleep). According to normalized power at the low-frequency band (LFnu) values, severe OSA seems to be associated with an increased sympathetic modulation at non-REM sleep. Moreover, a decreased autonomic variability throughout the night may be related to a reduced adaptability of the cardiovascular system, characterizing a more advanced stage of the disease. These results provide further evidence for the role of autonomic alterations induced by hypoxia, suggesting the use of HRV analysis, together with AHI, for the study of OSA severity.

Keywords: Sleep apnea, Heart rate variability, Modulation, Indexes, Standards


López-Carral, Héctor, Santos-Pata, D., Zucca, R., Verschure, P., (2019). How you type is what you type: Keystroke dynamics correlate with affective content ACII 2019 8th International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction , IEEE (Cabride, UK) , 1-5

Estimating the affective state of a user during a computer task traditionally relies on either subjective reports or analysis of physiological signals, facial expressions, and other measures. These methods have known limitations, can be intrusive and may require specialized equipment. An alternative would be employing a ubiquitous device of everyday use such as a standard keyboard. Here we investigate if we can infer the emotional state of a user by analyzing their typing patterns. To test this hypothesis, we asked 400 participants to caption a set of emotionally charged images taken from a standard database with known ratings of arousal and valence. We computed different keystroke pattern dynamics, including keystroke duration (dwell time) and latency (flight time). By computing the mean value of all of these features for each image, we found a statistically significant negative correlation between dwell times and valence, and between flight times and arousal. These results highlight the potential of using keystroke dynamics to estimate the affective state of a user in a non-obtrusive way and without the need for specialized devices.

Keywords: Feature extraction, Correlation, Keyboards, Task analysis, Statistical analysis, Affective computing, Standards, Keystroke, Keyboard, Typing, Arousal, Valence, Affect


Rodriguez, J., Voss, A., Caminal, P., Bayes-Genis, A., Giraldo, B. F., (2017). Characterization and classification of patients with different levels of cardiac death risk by using Poincaré plot analysis Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Seogwipo, South Korea) , 1332-1335

Cardiac death risk is still a big problem by an important part of the population, especially in elderly patients. In this study, we propose to characterize and analyze the cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory systems using the Poincaré plot. A total of 46 cardiomyopathy patients and 36 healthy subjets were analyzed. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was used to stratify patients with low risk (LR: LVEF > 35%, 16 patients), and high risk (HR: LVEF ≤ 35%, 30 patients) of heart attack. RR, SBP and TTot time series were extracted from the ECG, blood pressure and respiratory flow signals, respectively. Parameters that describe the scatterplott of Poincaré method, related to short- and long-term variabilities, acceleration and deceleration of the dynamic system, and the complex correlation index were extracted. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and the support vector machines (SVM) classification methods were used to analyze the results of the extracted parameters. The results showed that cardiac parameters were the best to discriminate between HR and LR groups, especially the complex correlation index (p = 0.009). Analising the interaction, the best result was obtained with the relation between the difference of the standard deviation of the cardiac and respiratory system (p = 0.003). When comparing HR vs LR groups, the best classification was obtained applying SVM method, using an ANOVA kernel, with an accuracy of 98.12%. An accuracy of 97.01% was obtained by comparing patients versus healthy, with a SVM classifier and Laplacian kernel. The morphology of Poincaré plot introduces parameters that allow the characterization of the cardiorespiratory system dynamics.

Keywords: Time series analysis, Electrocardiography, Support vector machines, Kernel, Standards, Correlation, RF signals


Trapero, J. I., Arizmendi, C. J., Gonzalez, H., Forero, C., Giraldo, B. F., (2017). Nonlinear dynamic analysis of the cardiorespiratory system in patients undergoing the weaning process Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Seogwipo, South Korea) , 3493-3496

In this work, the cardiorespiratory pattern of patients undergoing extubation process is studied. First, the respiratory and cardiac signals were resampled, next the Symbolic Dynamics (SD) technique was implemented, followed of a dimensionality reduction applying Forward Selection (FS) and Moving Window with Variance Analysis (MWVA) methods. Finally, the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers were used. The study analyzed 153 patients undergoing weaning process, classified into 3 groups: Successful Group (SG: 94 patients), Failed Group (FG: 39 patients), and patients who had been successful during the extubation and had to be reintubated before 48 hours, Reintubated Group (RG: 21 patients). According to the results, the best classification present an accuracy higher than 88.98 ± 0.013% in all proposed combinations.

Keywords: Support vector machines, Standards, Time series analysis, Resonant frequency, Nonlinear dynamical systems, Ventilation


Argerich, S., Herrera, S., Benito, S., Giraldo, J., (2016). Evaluation of periodic breathing in respiratory flow signal of elderly patients using SVM and linear discriminant analysis Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Orlando, USA) , 4276-4279

Aging population is a major concern that is reflected in the increase of chronic diseases. Heart Failure (HF) is one of the most common chronic diseases of elderly people that is punctuated with acute episodes, which result in hospitalization. The periodic modulation of the amplitude of the breathing pattern is proved to be one of the multiple symptoms of an acute episode, and thus, the features extracted from its characterization contribute in the improvement of the first diagnosis of the clinical practice. The main objective of this study is to evaluate if the features extracted from the breathing pattern along with common clinical variables are reliable enough to detect Periodic Breathing (PB). A dataset of 44 elderly patients containing clinical information and a short record of electrocardiogram and respiratory flow signal was used to train two machine learning classification methods: Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). All the available clinical parameters within the dataset along with the parameters characterizing the respiratory pattern were used to classify the observations into two groups. SVM classification was optimized and performed using a = -8 and C = 10.04 giving an accuracy of 88.2 % sensitivity of 90 % and specificity of 85.7 % Similar results were achieved with LDA classifying with an accuracy of 82.4 %, a sensitivity of 81.8% and specificity of 83.3 % PB has been accurately detected using both classifiers.

Keywords: Support vector machines, Feature extraction, Training, Senior citizens, Standards, Training data, Hospitals


Giraldo, B. F., Tellez, J. P., Herrera, S., Benito, S., (2013). Analysis of heart rate variability in elderly patients with chronic heart failure during periodic breathing CinC 2013 Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC) , IEEE (Zaragoza, Spain) , 991-994

Assessment of the dynamic interactions between cardiovascular signals can provide valuable information that improves the understanding of cardiovascular control. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is known to provide information about the autonomic heart rate modulation mechanism. Using the HRV signal, we aimed to obtain parameters for classifying patients with and without chronic heart failure (CHF), and with periodic breathing (PB), non-periodic breathing (nPB), and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) patterns. An electrocardiogram (ECG) and a respiratory flow signal were recorded in 36 elderly patients: 18 patients with CHF and 18 patients without CHF. According to the clinical criteria, the patients were classified into the follow groups: 19 patients with nPB pattern, 7 with PB pattern, 4 with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), and 6 non-classified patients (problems with respiratory signal). From the HRV signal, parameters in the time and frequency domain were calculated. Frequency domain parameters were the most discriminant in comparisons of patients with and without CHF: PTot (p = 0.02), PLF (p = 0.022) and fpHF (p = 0.021). For the comparison of the nPB vs. CSR patients groups, the best parameters were RMSSD (p = 0.028) and SDSD (p = 0.028). Therefore, the parameters appear to be suitable for enhanced diagnosis of decompensated CHF patients and the possibility of developed periodic breathing and a CSR pattern.

Keywords: cardiovascular system, diseases, electrocardiography, frequency-domain analysis, geriatrics, medical signal processing, patient diagnosis, pneumodynamics, signal classification, Cheyne-Stokes respiration patterns, ECG, autonomic heart rate modulation mechanism, cardiovascular control, cardiovascular signals, chronic heart failure, decompensated CHF patients, dynamic interaction assessment, elderly patients, electrocardiogram, enhanced diagnosis, frequency domain parameters, heart rate variability analysis, patient classification, periodic breathing, respiratory flow signal recording, Electrocardiography, Frequency modulation, Frequency-domain analysis, Heart rate variability, Senior citizens, Standards


Arcentales, A., Voss, A., Caminal, P., Bayes-Genis, A., Domingo, M. T., Giraldo, B. F., (2013). Characterization of patients with different ventricular ejection fractions using blood pressure signal analysis CinC 2013 Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC) , IEEE (Zaragoza, Spain) , 795-798

Ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy are associated with disorders of myocardium. Using the blood pressure (BP) signal and the values of the ventricular ejection fraction, we obtained parameters for stratifying cardiomyopathy patients as low- and high-risk. We studied 48 cardiomyopathy patients characterized by NYHA ≥2: 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 29 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) percentage was used to classify patients in low risk (LR: LVEF > 35%, 17 patients) and high risk (HR: LVEF ≤ 35%, 31 patients) groups. From the BP signal, we extracted the upward systolic slope (BPsl), the difference between systolic and diastolic BP (BPA), and systolic time intervals (STI). When we compared the LR and HR groups in the time domain analysis, the best parameters were standard deviation (SD) of 1=STI, kurtosis (K) of BPsl, and K of BPA. In the frequency domain analysis, very low frequency (VLF) and high frequency (HF) bands showed statistically significant differences in comaprisons of LR and HR groups. The area under the curve of power spectral density was the best parameter in all classifications, and particularly in the very-low-and high- frequency bands (p <; 0.001). These parameters could help to improve the risk stratification of cardiomyopathy patients.

Keywords: blood pressure measurement, cardiovascular system, diseases, medical disorders, medical signal processing, statistical analysis, time-domain analysis, BP signal, HR groups, LR groups, blood pressure signal analysis, cardiomyopathy patients, diastolic BP, dilated cardiomyopathy, frequency domain analysis, high-frequency bands, ischemic cardiomyopathy, left ventricular ejection fraction, low-frequency bands, myocardium disorders, patient characterization, power spectral density curve, standard deviation, statistical significant differences, systolic BP, systolic slope, systolic time intervals, time domain analysis, ventricular ejection fraction, Abstracts, Databases, Parameter extraction, Telecommunication standards, Time-frequency analysis