Staff member


Fabio Riefolo

PhD Student
Nanoprobes and Nanoswitches
friefolo@ibecbarcelona.eu
+34 934 037 205
Staff member publications

Agnetta, L., Bermudez, M., Riefolo, F., Matera, C., Claro, E., Messerer, R., Littmann, T., Wolber, G., Holzgrabe, U., Decker, M., (2019). Fluorination of photoswitchable muscarinic agonists tunes receptor pharmacology and photochromic properties Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 62, (6), 3009-3020

Red-shifted azobenzene scaffolds have emerged as useful molecular photoswitches to expand potential applications of photopharmacological tool compounds. As one of them, tetra-ortho-fluoro azobenzene is well compatible for the design of visible-light-responsive systems, providing stable and bidirectional photoconversions and tissue-compatible characteristics. Using the unsubstituted azobenzene core and its tetra-ortho-fluorinated analogue, we have developed a set of uni- and bivalent photoswitchable toolbox derivatives of the highly potent muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist iperoxo. We investigated the impact of the substitution pattern on receptor activity and evaluated the different binding modes. Compounds 9b and 15b show excellent photochemical properties and biological activity as fluorination of the azobenzene core alters not only the photochromic behavior but also the pharmacological profile at the muscarinic M1 receptor. These findings demonstrate that incorporation of fluorinated azobenzenes not just may alter photophysical properties but can exhibit a considerably different biological profile that has to be carefully investigated.


Riefolo, F., Matera, C., Garrido-Charles, A., Gomila, A., Sortino, R., Agnetta, L., Claro, E., Masgrau, R., Holzgrabe, U., Batlle, M., Decker, M., Guasch, E., Gorostiza, P., (2019). Optical control of cardiac function with a photoswitchable muscarinic agonist Journal of the American Chemical Society 141, (18), 7628-7636

Light-triggered reversible modulation of physiological functions offers the promise of enabling on-demand spatiotemporally controlled therapeutic interventions. Optogenetics has been successfully implemented in the heart, but significant barriers to its use in the clinic remain, such as the need for genetic transfection. Herein, we present a method to modulate cardiac function with light through a photoswitchable compound and without genetic manipulation. The molecule, named PAI, was designed by introduction of a photoswitch into the molecular structure of an M2 mAChR agonist. In vitro assays revealed that PAI enables light-dependent activation of M2 mAChRs. To validate the method, we show that PAI photoisomers display different cardiac effects in a mammalian animal model, and demonstrate reversible, real-time photocontrol of cardiac function in translucent wildtype tadpoles. PAI can also effectively activate M2 receptors using two-photon excitation with near-infrared light, which overcomes the scattering and low penetration of short-wave-length illumination, and offers new opportunities for intravital imaging and control of cardiac function.