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by Keyword: Aptamer


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Yang, Cheng, Lates, Vasilica, Prieto-Simón, Beatriz, Marty, Jean-Louis, Yang, Xiurong, (2012). Aptamer-DNAzyme hairpins for biosensing of Ochratoxin A Biosensors and Bioelectronics 32, (1), 208-212

We report an aptasensor for biosensing of Ochratoxin A (OTA) using aptamer-DNAzyme hairpin as biorecognition element. The structure of this engineered nucleic acid includes the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme and the OTA specific aptamer sequences. A blocking tail captures a part of these sequences in the stem region of the hairpin. In the presence of OTA, the hairpin is opened due to the formation of the aptamer–analyte complex. As a result, self-assembly of the active HRP-mimicking DNAzyme occurs. The activity of this DNAzyme is linearly correlated with OTA concentration up to 10 nM, showing a limit of detection of 2.5 nM.

Keywords: Ochratoxin A, Aptamer, G-quadruplex, DNAzyme, Hairpin


Urban, P., Valle-Delgado, J. J., Moles, E., Marques, J., Diez, C., Fernàndez-Busquets, X., (2012). Nanotools for the delivery of antimicrobial peptides Current Drug Targets , 13, (9), 1158-1172

Antimicrobial peptide drugs are increasingly attractive therapeutic agents as their roles in physiopathological processes are being unraveled and because the development of recombinant DNA technology has made them economically affordable in large amounts and high purity. However, due to lack of specificity regarding the target cells, difficulty in attaining them, or reduced half-lives, most current administration methods require high doses. On the other hand, reduced specificity of toxic drugs demands low concentrations to minimize undesirable side-effects, thus incurring the risk of having sublethal amounts which favour the appearance of resistant microbial strains. In this scenario, targeted delivery can fulfill the objective of achieving the intake of total quantities sufficiently low to be innocuous for the patient but that locally are high enough to be lethal for the infectious agent. One of the major advances in recent years has been the size reduction of drug carriers that have dimensions in the nanometer scale and thus are much smaller than -and capable of being internalized by- many types of cells. Among the different types of potential antimicrobial peptide-encapsulating structures reviewed here are liposomes, dendritic polymers, solid core nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and DNA cages. These nanoparticulate systems can be functionalized with a plethora of biomolecules providing specificity of binding to particular cell types or locations; as examples of these targeting elements we will present antibodies, DNA aptamers, cell-penetrating peptides, and carbohydrates. Multifunctional Trojan horse-like nanovessels can be engineered by choosing the adequate peptide content, encapsulating structure, and targeting moiety for each particular application.

Keywords: Antibodies, Aptamers, Dendrimers, Liposomes, Nanomedicine, Nanoparticles, Nanovectors, Targeting


Barthelmebs, L., Jonca, J., Hayat, A., Prieto-Simon, B., Marty, J. L., (2011). Enzyme-Linked Aptamer Assays (ELAAs), based on a competition format for a rapid and sensitive detection of Ochratoxin A in wine Food Control , 22, (5), 737-743

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most important mycotoxins because of its high toxicity to both humans and animals and its occurrence in a number of basic foods and agro-products. The need to develop high-performing methods for OTA analysis able to improve the traditional ones is evident. In this work, through in vitro SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) two aptamers, designated H8 and H12 were produced that bind with nanomolar affinity with Ochratoxin A (OTA). Two strategies were investigated by using an indirect and a direct competitive Enzyme-Linked Aptamer Assay (ELAA) and were compared to the classical competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the determination of OTA in spiked red wine samples. The limit of detection attained (1 ng/mL), the midpoint value obtained (5 ng/mL) and the analysis time needed (125 min) for the real sample analysis validate the direct competitive ELAA as useful screening tool for routine use in the control of OTA level in wine.

Keywords: Competitive Enzyme-Linked Aptamer Assay (ELAA), DNA aptamer, Ochratoxin A, SELEX, Wine analysis


Mir, M., (2011). Aptamers: The new biorecognition element for proteomic biosensing Biochemistry Research Updates (ed. Baginski, Simon J.), Nova Science Publishers, Inc (Hauppauge, USA) , -----

Aptamers are single stranded artificial nucleic acid ligands that can be generated against almost any kind of target, such as ions, metabolites aminoacids, drugs, toxins, proteins or whole cells. They are isolated from combinatorial libraries of synthetic nucleic acids by an iterative process of adsorption, recovery and amplification, know as SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) process. Aptamers, the nucleic acid equivalent to antibodies, are easy to synthesise, is not required the use of animals for its synthesis, for this reason it can be developed again toxins and small molecules that do not produce immune response in animals and can be tuned for affinity in closer to assay conditions permitting recognition out of the physiological state. So, aptamers posses numerous advantages that make them preferred candidates as biorecognition elements. In view of the advantages and simple structure of aptamers, they have been used in a wide range of applications such as therapeutics, diagnosis, chromatography, environmental detection, among other.

Keywords: Aptamers, Biosensors, Protein recognition


Prieto-Simón, B., Campà s, M., Marty, J. L., (2010). Electrochemical aptamer-based sensors Bioanalytical Reviews , 1, (2), 141-157

The valuable properties of aptamers, such as specificity, sensitivity, stability, cost-effectiveness and design flexibility, have favoured their use as biorecognition elements in biosensor development. These synthetic affinity probes can be developed for almost any target molecule, covering a wide range of applications in fields such as clinical diagnosis and therapy, environmental monitoring and food control. The combination of aptamers with high-performance electrochemical transducers, with their inherent high sensitivities, fast response times and simple equipment, has already provided several electrochemical aptamer-based sensors. Moreover, the small size and versatility of aptamers allow efficient immobilisations in high-density monolayers, an important feature towards miniaturisation and integration of compact electrochemical devices. This review describes the state-of-the-art of electrochemical aptamer-based sensors, entering into the details of the different strategies and types of electrochemical transduction and also considering their advantages when applied to the analysis of complex matrices.

Keywords: Aptabeacon, Aptamer, Biosensor, Electrochemical detection, Redox label