by Keyword: Computational fluid dynamics

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Melchels, Ferry P. W., Tonnarelli, Beatrice, Olivares, Andy L., Martin, Ivan, Lacroix, Damien, Feijen, Jan, Wendt, David J., Grijpma, Dirk W., (2011). The influence of the scaffold design on the distribution of adhering cells after perfusion cell seeding Biomaterials 32, (11), 2878-2884

In natural tissues, the extracellular matrix composition, cell density and physiological properties are often non-homogeneous. Here we describe a model system, in which the distribution of cells throughout tissue engineering scaffolds after perfusion seeding can be influenced by the pore architecture of the scaffold. Two scaffold types, both with gyroid pore architectures, were designed and built by stereolithography: one with isotropic pore size (412 ± 13 [mu]m) and porosity (62 ± 1%), and another with a gradient in pore size (250-500 [mu]m) and porosity (35%-85%). Computational fluid flow modelling showed a uniform distribution of flow velocities and wall shear rates (15-24 s-1) for the isotropic architecture, and a gradient in the distribution of flow velocities and wall shear rates (12-38 s-1) for the other architecture. The distribution of cells throughout perfusion-seeded scaffolds was visualised by confocal microscopy. The highest densities of cells correlated with regions of the scaffolds where the pores were larger, and the fluid velocities and wall shear rates were the highest. Under the applied perfusion conditions, cell deposition is mainly determined by local wall shear stress, which, in turn, is strongly influenced by the architecture of the pore network of the scaffold.

Keywords: Scaffolds, Microstructure, Cell adhesion, Confocal microscopy, Image analysis, Computational fluid dynamics

Santoro, R., Olivares, A. L., Brans, G., Wirz, D., Longinotti, C., Lacroix, D., Martin, I., Wendt, D., (2010). Bioreactor based engineering of large-scale human cartilage grafts for joint resurfacing Biomaterials 31, (34), 8946-8952

Apart from partial or total joint replacement, no surgical procedure is currently available to treat large and deep cartilage defects associated with advanced diseases such as osteoarthritis. In this work, we developed a perfusion bioreactor system to engineer human cartilage grafts in a size with clinical relevance for unicompartmental resurfacing of human knee joints (50 mm diameter x 3 mm thick). Computational fluid dynamics models were developed to optimize the flow profile when designing the perfusion chamber. Using the developed system, human chondrocytes could be seeded throughout large 50 mm diameter scaffolds with a uniform distribution. Following two weeks culture, tissues grown in the bioreactor were viable and homogeneously cartilaginous, with biomechanical properties approaching those of native cartilage. In contrast, tissues generated by conventional manual production procedures were highly inhomogeneous and contained large necrotic regions. The unprecedented engineering of human cartilage tissues in this large-scale opens the practical perspective of grafting functional biological substitutes for the clinical treatment for extensive cartilage defects, possibly in combination with surgical or pharmacological therapies to support durability of the implant. Ongoing efforts are aimed at integrating the up-scaled bioreactor based processes within a fully automated and closed manufacturing system for safe, standardized, and GMP compliant production of large-scale cartilage grafts.

Keywords: Bioreactor, Cartilage repair, Computational fluid dynamics, Scale-up, Regenerative medicine, Tissue engineering

Milan, J. L., Planell, J. A., Lacroix, D., (2009). Computational modelling of the mechanical environment of osteogenesis within a polylactic acid-calcium phosphate glass scaffold Biomaterials 30, (25), 4219-4226

A computational model based on finite element method (FEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is developed to analyse the mechanical stimuli in a composite scaffold made of polylactic acid (PLA) matrix with calcium phosphate glass (Glass) particles. Different bioreactor loading conditions were simulated within the scaffold. In vitro perfusion conditions were reproduced in the model. Dynamic compression was also reproduced in an uncoupled fluid-structure scheme: deformation level was studied analyzing the mechanical response of scaffold alone under static compression while strain rate was studied considering the fluid flow induced by compression through fixed scaffold. Results of the model show that during perfusion test an inlet velocity of 25mum/s generates on scaffold surface a fluid flow shear stress which may stimulate osteogenesis. Dynamic compression of 5% applied on the PLA-Glass scaffold with a strain rate of 0.005s(-1) has the benefit to generate mechanical stimuli based on both solid shear strain and fluid flow shear stress on large scaffold surface area. Values of perfusion inlet velocity or compression strain rate one order of magnitude lower may promote cell proliferation while values one order of magnitude higher may be detrimental for cells. FEM-CFD scaffold models may help to determine loading conditions promoting bone formation and to interpret experimental results from a mechanical point of view.

Keywords: Bone tissue engineering, Scaffold, Finite element analysis, Computational fluid dynamics, Mechanical stimuli

Olivares, A. L., Marshal, E., Planell, J. A., Lacroix, D., (2009). Finite element study of scaffold architecture design and culture conditions for tissue engineering Biomaterials 30, (30), 6142-6149

Tissue engineering scaffolds provide temporary mechanical support for tissue regeneration and transfer global mechanical load to mechanical stimuli to cells through its architecture. In this study the interactions between scaffold pore morphology, mechanical stimuli developed at the cell microscopic level, and culture conditions applied at the macroscopic scale are studied on two regular scaffold structures. Gyroid and hexagonal scaffolds of 55% and 70% porosity were modeled in a finite element analysis and were submitted to an inlet fluid flow or compressive strain. A mechanoregulation theory based on scaffold shear strain and fluid shear stress was applied for determining the influence of each structures on the mechanical stimuli on initial conditions. Results indicate that the distribution of shear stress induced by fluid perfusion is very dependent on pore distribution within the scaffold. Gyroid architectures provide a better accessibility of the fluid than hexagonal structures. Based on the mechanoregulation theory, the differentiation process in these structures was more sensitive to inlet fluid flow than axial strain of the scaffold. This study provides a computational approach to determine the mechanical stimuli at the cellular level when cells are cultured in a bioreactor and to relate mechanical stimuli with cell differentiation.

Keywords: Tissue engineering, Scaffold, Rapid prototyping, Computational fluid dynamics, Finite element