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Sebastian, P., Giannotti, M. I., Gómez, E., Feliu, J. M., (2018). Surface sensitive nickel electrodeposition in deep eutectic solvent ACS Applied Energy Materials , 1, (3), 1016-1028

The first steps of nickel electrodeposition in a deep eutectic solvent (DES) are analyzed in detail. Several substrates from glassy carbon to Pt(111) were investigated pointing out the surface sensitivity of the nucleation and growth mechanism. For that, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were employed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to more deeply analyze the Ni deposition on Pt substrates. In a 0.1 M NiCl2 + DES solution (at 70 °C), the nickel deposition on glassy carbon takes place within the potential limits of the electrode in the blank solution. Although, the electrochemical window of Pt|DES is considerably shorter than on glassy carbon|DES, it was still sufficient for the nickel deposition. On the Pt electrode, the negative potential limit was enlarged while the nickel deposit grew, likely because of the lower catalytic activity of the nickel toward the reduction of the DES. At lower overpotentials, different hydrogenated Ni structures were favored, most likely because of the DES co-reduction on the Pt substrate. Nanometric metallic nickel grains of rounded shape were obtained on any substrate, as evidenced by the FE-SEM. Passivation phenomena, related to the formation of Ni oxide and Ni hydroxylated species, were observed at high applied overpotentials. At low deposited charge, on Pt(111) the AFM measurements showed the formation of rounded nanometric particles of Ni, which rearranged and formed small triangular arrays at sufficiently low applied overpotential. This particle pattern was induced by the (111) orientation and related to surface sensitivity of the nickel deposition in DES. The present work provides deep insights into the Ni electrodeposition mechanism in the selected deep eutectic solvent.

Keywords: AFM, Deep eutectic solvent, Glassy carbon, Nanostructures, Nickel electrodeposition, Platinum electrode, Pt(111), SEM, Surface sensitive