by Keyword: MOX sensor
Burgués, Javier, Marco, Santiago, (2020). Feature extraction for transient chemical sensor signals in response to turbulent plumes: Application to chemical source distance prediction Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical In press, 128235
This paper describes the design of a linear phase low-pass differentiator filter with a finite impulse response (FIR) for extracting transient features of gas sensor signals (the so-called “bouts”). The detection of these bouts is relevant for estimating the distance of a gas source in a turbulent plume. Our current proposal addresses the shortcomings of previous ‘bout’ estimation methods, namely: (i) they were based in non-causal digital filters precluding real time operation, (ii) they used non-linear phase filters leading to waveform distortions and (iii) the smoothing action was achieved by two filters in cascade, precluding an easy tuning of filter performance. The presented method is based on a low-pass FIR differentiator, plus proper post-processing, allowing easy algorithmic implementation for real-time robotic exploration. Linear phase filters preserve signal waveform in the bandpass region for maximum reliability concerning both ‘bout’ detection and amplitude estimation. As a case study, we apply the proposed filter to predict the source distance from recordings obtained with metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors in a wind tunnel. We first perform a joint optimization of the cut-off frequency of the filter and the bout amplitude threshold, for different wind speeds, uncovering interesting relationships between these two parameters. We demonstrate that certain combinations of parameters can reduce the prediction error to 8 cm (in a distance range of 1.45 m) improving previously reported performances in the same dataset by a factor of 2.5. These results are benchmarked against traditional source distance estimators such as the mean, variance and maximum of the response. We also study how the length of the measurement window affects the performance of different signal features, and how to select the filter parameters to make the predictive models more robust to changes in wind speed. Finally, we provide a MATLAB implementation of the bout detection algorithm and all analysis code used in this study.
Keywords: Gas sensors, Differentiator, Low pass filter, Metal oxide semiconductor, MOX sensors, Signal processing, Feature extraction, Gas source localization, Robotics
Martinez, Dominique, Burgués, Javier, Marco, Santiago, (2019). Fast measurements with MOX sensors: A least-squares approach to blind deconvolution Sensors 19, (18), 4029
Metal oxide (MOX) sensors are widely used for chemical sensing due to their low cost, miniaturization, low power consumption and durability. Yet, getting instantaneous measurements of fluctuating gas concentration in turbulent plumes is not possible due to their slow response time. In this paper, we show that the slow response of MOX sensors can be compensated by deconvolution, provided that an invertible, parametrized, sensor model is available. We consider a nonlinear, first-order dynamic model that is mathematically tractable for MOX identification and deconvolution. By transforming the sensor signal in the log-domain, the system becomes linear in the parameters and these can be estimated by the least-squares techniques. Moreover, we use the MOX diversity in a sensor array to avoid training with a supervised signal. The information provided by two (or more) sensors, exposed to the same flow but responding with different dynamics, is exploited to recover the ground truth signal (gas input). This approach is known as blind deconvolution. We demonstrate its efficiency on MOX sensors recorded in turbulent plumes. The reconstructed signal is similar to the one obtained with a fast photo-ionization detector (PID). The technique is thus relevant to track a fast-changing gas concentration with MOX sensors, resulting in a compensated response time comparable to that of a PID.
Keywords: MOX sensors, Blind deconvolution, Blind identification, Least-squares, Turbulent plumes.
Burgués, Javier, Hernández, Victor, Lilienthal, Achim J., Marco, Santiago, (2019). Smelling nano aerial vehicle for gas source localization and mapping Sensors 19, (3), 478
This paper describes the development and validation of the currently smallest aerial platform with olfaction capabilities. The developed Smelling Nano Aerial Vehicle (SNAV) is based on a lightweight commercial nano-quadcopter (27 g) equipped with a custom gas sensing board that can host up to two in situ metal oxide semiconductor (MOX) gas sensors. Due to its small form-factor, the SNAV is not a hazard for humans, enabling its use in public areas or inside buildings. It can autonomously carry out gas sensing missions of hazardous environments inaccessible to terrestrial robots and bigger drones, for example searching for victims and hazardous gas leaks inside pockets that form within the wreckage of collapsed buildings in the aftermath of an earthquake or explosion. The first contribution of this work is assessing the impact of the nano-propellers on the MOX sensor signals at different distances to a gas source. A second contribution is adapting the ‘bout’ detection algorithm, proposed by Schmuker et al. (2016) to extract specific features from the derivative of the MOX sensor response, for real-time operation. The third and main contribution is the experimental validation of the SNAV for gas source localization (GSL) and mapping in a large indoor environment (160 m2) with a gas source placed in challenging positions for the drone, for example hidden in the ceiling of the room or inside a power outlet box. Two GSL strategies are compared, one based on the instantaneous gas sensor response and the other one based on the bout frequency. From the measurements collected (in motion) along a predefined sweeping path we built (in less than 3 min) a 3D map of the gas distribution and identified the most likely source location. Using the bout frequency yielded on average a higher localization accuracy than using the instantaneous gas sensor response (1.38 m versus 2.05 m error), however accurate tuning of an additional parameter (the noise threshold) is required in the former case. The main conclusion of this paper is that a nano-drone has the potential to perform gas sensing tasks in complex environments.
Keywords: Robotics, Signal processing, Electronics, Gas source localization, Gas distribution mapping, Gas sensors, Drone, UAV, MOX sensor, Quadcopter
Solórzano, A., Rodríguez-Pérez, R., Padilla, M., Graunke, T., Fernandez, L., Marco, S., Fonollosa, J., (2018). Multi-unit calibration rejects inherent device variability of chemical sensor arrays Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 265, 142-154
Inherent sensor variability limits mass-production applications for metal oxide (MOX) gas sensor arrays because calibration for replicas of a sensor array needs to be performed individually. Recently, calibration transfer strategies have been proposed to alleviate calibration costs of new replicas, but they still require the acquisition of transfer samples. In this work, we present calibration models that can be extended to uncalibrated replicas of sensor arrays without acquiring new samples, i.e., general or global calibration models. The developed methodology consists in including multiple replicas of a sensor array in the calibration process such that sensor variability is rejected by the general model. Our approach was tested using replicas of a MOX sensor array in the classification task of six gases and synthetic air, presented at different background humidity and concentration levels. Results showed that direct transfer of individual calibration models provides poor classification accuracy. However, we also found that general calibration models kept predictive performance when were applied directly to new copies of the sensor array. Moreover, we explored, through feature selection, whether particular combinations of sensors and operating temperatures can provide predictive performances equivalent to the calibration model with the complete array, favoring thereby the existence of more robust calibration models.
Keywords: Gas sensor array, MOX sensor, Robust calibration, Calibration transfer, Machine olfaction
Fernandez, L., Yan, J., Fonollosa, J., Burgués, J., Gutierrez, A., Marco, S., (2018). A practical method to estimate the resolving power of a chemical sensor array: Application to feature selection Frontiers in Chemistry 6, Article 209
A methodology to calculate analytical figures of merit is not well established for detection systems that are based on sensor arrays with low sensor selectivity. In this work, we present a practical approach to estimate the Resolving Power of a sensory system, considering non-linear sensors and heteroscedastic sensor noise. We use the definition introduced by Shannon in the field of communication theory to quantify the number of symbols in a noisy environment, and its version adapted by Gardner and Barlett for chemical sensor systems. Our method combines dimensionality reduction and the use of algorithms to compute the convex hull of the empirical data to estimate the data volume in the sensor response space. We validate our methodology with synthetic data and with actual data captured with temperature-modulated MOX gas sensors. Unlike other methodologies, our method does not require the intrinsic dimensionality of the sensor response to be smaller than the dimensionality of the input space. Moreover, our method circumvents the problem to obtain the sensitivity matrix, which usually is not known. Hence, our method is able to successfully compute the Resolving Power of actual chemical sensor arrays. We provide a relevant figure of merit, and a methodology to calculate it, that was missing in the literature to benchmark broad-response gas sensor arrays.
Keywords: Gas sensor array, MOX sensors, Resolving Power, Sensor resolution, Dimensionality reduction, Machine olfaction
Burgues, J., Fonollosa, J., Marco, S., (2017). Discontinuously operated MOX sensors for low power applications IEEE Conference Publications ISOCS/IEEE International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose (ISOEN) , IEEE (Montreal, Canada) , 1-3
Metal oxide semiconductor sensors are limited by their low selectivity, high power consumption and temporal drift. This paper proposes a novel discontinuous temperature modulation operation mode characterized by on-demand measurements and periodic warm-up cycles. The performance of two sets of FIS SB-500-12 sensors, one group continuously operated and the other group discontinuously operated, was compared in a scenario of carbon monoxide detection at low concentrations for five consecutive days. Results showed that the discontinuous operating mode moderately increased the prediction error and the limit of detection but was advantageous in terms of energy savings (up to 60% with respect to the continuous temperature modulation mode).
Keywords: Discontinuous operation, Duty-cycling, Low power, MOX sensors, Temperature modulation
Fonollosa, J., Fernández, L., Gutiérrez-Gálvez, A., Huerta, R., Marco, S., (2016). Calibration transfer and drift counteraction in chemical sensor arrays using Direct Standardization Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 236, 1044-1053
Inherent variability of chemical sensors makes it necessary to calibrate chemical detection systems individually. This shortcoming has traditionally limited usability of systems based on metal oxide gas sensor arrays and prevented mass-production for some applications. Here, aiming at exploring calibration transfer between chemical sensor arrays, we exposed five twin 8-sensor detection units to different concentration levels of ethanol, ethylene, carbon monoxide, or methane. First, we built calibration models using data acquired with a master unit. Second, to explore the transferability of the calibration models, we used Direct Standardization to map the signals of a slave unit to the space of the master unit in calibration. In particular, we evaluated the transferability of the calibration models to other detection units, and within the same unit measuring days apart. Our results show that signals acquired with one unit can be successfully mapped to the space of a reference unit. Hence, calibration models trained with a master unit can be extended to slave units using a reduced number of transfer samples, diminishing thereby calibration costs. Similarly, signals of a sensing unit can be transformed to match sensor behavior in the past to mitigate drift effects. Therefore, the proposed methodology can reduce calibration costs in mass-production and delay recalibrations due to sensor aging. Acquired dataset is made publicly available.
Keywords: Calibration transfer, Chemical sensors, Direct Standardization, Electronic nose, MOX sensors, Public dataset
Huerta, R., Mosqueiro, T., Fonollosa, J., Rulkov, N.F., Rodríguez-Lujan, I., (2016). Online decorrelation of humidity and temperature in chemical sensors for continuous monitoring Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems , 157, 169-176
A method for online decorrelation of chemical sensor signals from the effects of environmental humidity and temperature variations is proposed. The goal is to improve the accuracy of electronic nose measurements for continuous monitoring by processing data from simultaneous readings of environmental humidity and temperature. The electronic nose setup built for this study included eight metal-oxide sensors, temperature and humidity sensors with a wireless communication link to external computer. This wireless electronic nose was used to monitor the air for two years in the residence of one of the authors and it collected data continuously during 537 days with a sampling rate of 1 sample per second. To estimate the effects of variations in air humidity and temperature on the chemical sensors' signals, we used a standard energy band model for an n-type metal-oxide (MOX) gas sensor. The main assumption of the model is that variations in sensor conductivity can be expressed as a nonlinear function of changes in the semiconductor energy bands in the presence of external humidity and temperature variations. Fitting this model to the collected data, we confirmed that the most statistically significant factors are humidity changes and correlated changes of temperature and humidity. This simple model achieves excellent accuracy with a coefficient of determination R2 close to 1. To show how the humidity–temperature correction model works for gas discrimination, we constructed a model for online discrimination among banana, wine and baseline response. This shows that pattern recognition algorithms improve performance and reliability by including the filtered signal of the chemical sensors.
Keywords: Electronic nose, Chemical sensors, Humidity, Temperature, Decorrelation, Wireless e-nose, MOX sensors, Energy band model, Home monitoring
Ziyatdinov, Andrey, Fonollosa, Jordi, Fernández, Luis, Gutiérrez-Gálvez, Agustín, Marco, Santiago, Perera, Alexandre, (2015). Data set from gas sensor array under flow modulation Data in Brief , 3, 131-136
Abstract Recent studies in neuroscience suggest that sniffing, namely sampling odors actively, plays an important role in olfactory system, especially in certain scenarios such as novel odorant detection. While the computational advantages of high frequency sampling have not been yet elucidated, here, in order to motivate further investigation in active sampling strategies, we share the data from an artificial olfactory system made of 16 MOX gas sensors under gas flow modulation. The data were acquired on a custom set up featured by an external mechanical ventilator that emulates the biological respiration cycle. 58 samples were recorded in response to a relatively broad set of 12 gas classes, defined from different binary mixtures of acetone and ethanol in air. The acquired time series show two dominant frequency bands: the low-frequency signal corresponds to a conventional response curve of a sensor in response to a gas pulse, and the high-frequency signal has a clear principal harmonic at the respiration frequency. The data are related to the study in , and the data analysis results reported there should be considered as a reference point.
Keywords: Gas sensor array, MOX sensor, Flow modulation, Early detection, Biomimetics, Respiration, Sniffing
Ziyatdinov, Andrey, Fonollosa, Jordi, Fernánndez, Luis, Gutierrez-Gálvez, Agustín, Marco, Santiago, Perera, Alexandre, (2015). Bioinspired early detection through gas flow modulation in chemo-sensory systems Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 206, 538-547
Abstract The design of bioinspired systems for chemical sensing is an engaging line of research in machine olfaction. Developments in this line could increase the lifetime and sensitivity of artificial chemo-sensory systems. Such approach is based on the sensory systems known in live organisms, and the resulting developed artificial systems are targeted to reproduce the biological mechanisms to some extent. Sniffing behaviour, sampling odours actively, has been studied recently in neuroscience, and it has been suggested that the respiration frequency is an important parameter of the olfactory system, since the odour perception, especially in complex scenarios such as novel odourants exploration, depends on both the stimulus identity and the sampling method. In this work we propose a chemical sensing system based on an array of 16 metal-oxide gas sensors that we combined with an external mechanical ventilator to simulate the biological respiration cycle. The tested gas classes formed a relatively broad combination of two analytes, acetone and ethanol, in binary mixtures. Two sets of low-frequency and high-frequency features were extracted from the acquired signals to show that the high-frequency features contain information related to the gas class. In addition, such information is available at early stages of the measurement, which could make the technique suitable in early detection scenarios. The full data set is made publicly available to the community.11 http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+sensor+array+under+flow+modulation.
Keywords: Gas sensor array, MOX sensor, Flow modulation, Early detection, Biomimetics, Sniffing
Fernandez, L., Marco, S., Gutierrez-Galvez, A., (2015). Robustness to sensor damage of a highly redundant gas sensor array Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 218, 296-302
Abstract In this paper we study the role of redundant sensory information to prevent the performance degradation of a chemical sensor array for different distributions of sensor failures across sensor types. The large amount of sensing conditions with two different types of redundancy provided by our sensor array makes possible a comprehensive experimental study. Particularly, our sensor array is composed of 8 different types of commercial MOX sensors modulated in temperature with two redundancy levels: (1) 12 replicates of each sensor type for a total of 96 sensors and (2) measurements using 16 load resistors per sensors for a total of 1536 redundant measures per second. We perform two experiments to determine the performance degradation of the array with increasing number of damaged sensors in two different scenarios of sensor faults distributions across sensor types. In the first experiment, we characterize the diversity and redundancy of the array for increasing number of damaged sensors. To measure diversity and redundancy, we proposed a functional definition based on clustering of sensor features. The second experiment is devoted to determine the performance degradation of the array for the effect of faulty sensors. To this end, the system is trained to separate ethanol, acetone and butanone at different concentrations using a PCAâ€“LDA model. Test set samples are corrupted by means of three different simulated types of faults. To evaluate the performance of the array we used the Fisher score as a measure of odour separability. Our results show that to exploit to the utmost the redundancy of the sensor array faulty sensory units have to be distributed uniformly across the different sensor types.
Keywords: Gas sensor arrays, Sensor redundancy, Sensor diversity, Sensor faults aging, Sensor damage, MOX sensors, Large sensor arrays
Fonollosa, J., Neftci, E., Huerta, R., Marco, S., (2015). Evaluation of calibration transfer strategies between Metal Oxide gas sensor arrays Procedia Engineering EUROSENSORS 2015 , Elsevier (Freiburg, Germany) 120, 261-264
Abstract Inherent variability of chemical sensors makes necessary individual calibration of chemical detection systems. This shortcoming has traditionally limited usability of systems based on Metal Oxide (MOX) sensor arrays and prevented mass-production for some applications. Here, aiming at exploring transfer calibration between electronic nose systems, we exposed five identical 8-sensor detection units to controlled gas conditions. Our results show that a calibration model provides more accurate predictions when the tested board is included in the calibration dataset. However, we show that previously built calibration models can be extended to other units using a reduced number of measurements. While baseline correction seems imperative for successful baseline correction, among the different tested strategies, piecewise direct standardization provides more accurate predictions.
Keywords: Electronic nose, Calibration, MOX sensor, Machine Olfaction
Fernandez, L., Gutierrez-Galvez, A., Marco, S., (2014). Robustness to sensor damage of a highly redundant gas sensor array Procedia Engineering 28th European Conference on Solid-State Transducers (EUROSENSORS 2014) , Eurosensors (Brescia, Italy) 87, 851-854
Abstract In this paper we study the role of redundant sensory information to prevent the performance degradation of a chemical sensor array as the number of faulty sensors increases. The large amount of sensing conditions with two different types of redundancy provided by our sensor array makes possible a comprehensive experimental study. Particularly, our sensor array is composed of 8 different types of commercial MOX sensors modulated in temperature with two redundancy levels: 1) 12 replicates of each sensor type for a total of 96 sensors, and 2) measurements using 16 load resistors per sensors for a total of 1536 redundant measures per second. The system is trained to identify ethanol, acetone and butanone using a PCA-LDA model. Test set samples are corrupted by means of three different simulated types of faults. To evaluate the tolerance of the array against sensor failure, the Fisher Score is used as a figure of merit for the corrupted test set samples projected on the PCA-LDA model.
Keywords: Gas ensor arrays, sensor redundancy, MOX sensors, large sensor arrays.
Fernandez, L., Gutierrez-Galvez, A., Marco, S., (2010). Gas sensor array system inspired on the sensory diversity and redundancy of the olfactory epithelium Procedia Engineering Eurosensor XXIV Conference (ed. Jakoby, B., Vellekoop, M.J.), Elsevier Science BV (Linz, Austria) 5, (0), 25-28
This paper presents a chemical sensing system that takes inspiration from the combination of sensory diversity and redundancy at the olfactory epithelium to enhance the chemical information obtained from the odorants. The system is based on commercial MOS sensors and achieves, first, diversity trough different types of MOS along with modulation of their temperatures, and second redundancy including 12 MOS sensors for each type (12Ã—8) combined with a high-speed multiplexing system that allows connecting 16 load resistors with each and every one of the 96 sensors in about two seconds. Exposition of the system to ethanol, ammonia, and acetone at different concentrations shows how the system is able to capture a large amount of information of the identity and the concentration of the odorant.
Keywords: Gas sensor array, Biologically inspired system, Redundancy, Diversity, MOX sensors, Temperature modulation