by Keyword: Mechanical stimuli

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Milan, J. L., Planell, J. A., Lacroix, D., (2009). Computational modelling of the mechanical environment of osteogenesis within a polylactic acid-calcium phosphate glass scaffold Biomaterials 30, (25), 4219-4226

A computational model based on finite element method (FEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is developed to analyse the mechanical stimuli in a composite scaffold made of polylactic acid (PLA) matrix with calcium phosphate glass (Glass) particles. Different bioreactor loading conditions were simulated within the scaffold. In vitro perfusion conditions were reproduced in the model. Dynamic compression was also reproduced in an uncoupled fluid-structure scheme: deformation level was studied analyzing the mechanical response of scaffold alone under static compression while strain rate was studied considering the fluid flow induced by compression through fixed scaffold. Results of the model show that during perfusion test an inlet velocity of 25mum/s generates on scaffold surface a fluid flow shear stress which may stimulate osteogenesis. Dynamic compression of 5% applied on the PLA-Glass scaffold with a strain rate of 0.005s(-1) has the benefit to generate mechanical stimuli based on both solid shear strain and fluid flow shear stress on large scaffold surface area. Values of perfusion inlet velocity or compression strain rate one order of magnitude lower may promote cell proliferation while values one order of magnitude higher may be detrimental for cells. FEM-CFD scaffold models may help to determine loading conditions promoting bone formation and to interpret experimental results from a mechanical point of view.

Keywords: Bone tissue engineering, Scaffold, Finite element analysis, Computational fluid dynamics, Mechanical stimuli

Sandino, C., Planell, J. A., Lacroix, D., (2008). A finite element study of mechanical stimuli in scaffolds for bone tissue engineering Journal of Biomechanics 41, (5), 1005-1014

Mechanical stimuli are one of the factors that affect cell proliferation and differentiation in the process of bone tissue regeneration. Knowledge on the specific deformation sensed by cells at a microscopic level when mechanical loads are applied is still missing in the development of biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of the mechanical stimuli within some calcium phosphate-based scaffolds in terms of stress and strain distributions in the solid material phase and fluid velocity, fluid pressure and fluid shear stress distributions in the pores filled of fluid, by means of micro computed tomographed (CT)-based finite element (FE) models. Two samples of porous materials, one of calcium phosphate-based cement and another of biodegradable glass, were used. Compressive loads equivalent to 0.5% of compression applied to the solid material phase and interstitial fluid flows with inlet velocities of 1, 10 and 100 mu m/s applied to the interconnected pores were simulated, changing also the inlet side and the viscosity of the medium. Similar strain distributions for both materials were found, with compressive and tensile strain maximal values of 1.6% and 0.6%, respectively. Mean values were consistent with the applied deformation. When 10 mu m/s of inlet fluid velocity and 1.45 Pa s viscosity, maximal values of fluid velocity were 12.76 mm/s for CaP cement and 14.87 mm/s for glass. Mean values were consistent with the inlet ones applied, and mean values of shear stress were around 5 x 10(-5) Pa. Variations on inlet fluid velocity and fluid viscosity produce proportional and independent changes in fluid velocity, fluid shear stress and fluid pressure. This study has shown how mechanical loads and fluid flow applied on the scaffolds cause different levels of mechanical stimuli within the samples according to the morphology of the materials.

Keywords: Bone tissue engineering, Finite element analysis, Scaffolds, Mechanical stimuli