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by Keyword: Microphones


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Castillo-Escario, Y., Ferrer-Lluis, I., Montserrat, J. M., Jané, R., (2019). Entropy analysis of acoustic signals recorded with a smartphone for detecting apneas and hypopneas: A comparison with a commercial system for home sleep apnea diagnosis IEEE Access 7, 128224-128241

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disease, but most patients remain undiagnosed and untreated. Here we propose analyzing smartphone audio signals for screening OSA patients at home. Our objectives were to: (1) develop an algorithm for detecting silence events and classifying them into apneas or hypopneas; (2) evaluate the performance of this system; and (3) compare the information provided with a type 3 portable sleep monitor, based mainly on nasal airflow. Overnight signals were acquired simultaneously by both systems in 13 subjects (3 healthy subjects and 10 OSA patients). The sample entropy of audio signals was used to identify apnea/hypopnea events. The apnea-hypopnea indices predicted by the two systems presented a very high degree of concordance and the smartphone correctly detected and stratified all the OSA patients. An event-by-event comparison demonstrated good agreement between silence events and apnea/hypopnea events in the reference system (Sensitivity = 76%, Positive Predictive Value = 82%). Most apneas were detected (89%), but not so many hypopneas (61%). We observed that many hypopneas were accompanied by snoring, so there was no sound reduction. The apnea/hypopnea classification accuracy was 70%, but most discrepancies resulted from the inability of the nasal cannula of the reference device to record oral breathing. We provided a spectral characterization of oral and nasal breathing to correct this effect, and the classification accuracy increased to 82%. This novel knowledge from acoustic signals may be of great interest for clinical practice to develop new non-invasive techniques for screening and monitoring OSA patients at home.

Keywords: Sleep apnea, Acoustics, Monitoring, Entropy, Sensors, Microphones, Acoustics, Biomedical signal processing, mHealth, Monitoring, Sleep apnea, Smartphone


Lozano-García, M., Davidson, C. M., Jané, R., (2019). Analysis of tracheal and pulmonary continuous adventitious respiratory sounds in asthma Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Berlín, Germany) , 4930-4933

Continuous adventitious sounds (CAS) are commonly observed in obstructive pulmonary diseases and are of great clinical interest. However, their evaluation is generally subjective. We have previously developed an automatic CAS segmentation and classification algorithm for CAS recorded on the chest surface. The aim of this study is to establish whether these pulmonary CAS can be identified in a similar way using a tracheal microphone. Respiratory sounds were originally recorded from 25 participants using five contact microphones, four on the chest and one on the trachea, during three progressive respiratory maneuvers. In this work CAS component detection was performed on the tracheal channel using our automatic algorithm based on the Hilbert spectrum. The tracheal CAS detected were then compared to the previously analyzed pulmonary CAS. The sensitivity of CAS identification was lower at the tracheal microphone, with CAS that appeared simultaneously in all four pulmonary recordings more likely to be identified in the tracheal recordings. These observations could be due to the CAS being obscured by the lower SNR present in the tracheal recordings or not being transmitted through the airways to the trachea. Further work to optimize the algorithm for the tracheal recordings will be conducted in the future.

Keywords: Microphones, Lung, Diseases, Time-frequency analysis, Spectrogram, Sensitivity


Castillo-Escario, Y., Ferrer-Lluis, I., Montserrat, J. M., Jané, R., (2019). Automatic silence events detector from smartphone audio aignals: A pilot mHealth system for sleep apnea monitoring at home Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Berlín, Germany) , 4982-4985

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disease, but most patients remain undiagnosed and untreated. Recently, mHealth tools are being proposed to screen OSA patients at home. In this work, we analyzed full-night audio signals recorded with a smartphone microphone. Our objective was to develop an automatic detector to identify silence events (apneas or hypopneas) and compare its performance to a commercial portable system for OSA diagnosis (ApneaLink™, ResMed). To do that, we acquired signals from three subjects with both systems simultaneously. A sleep specialist marked the events on smartphone and ApneaLink signals. The automatic detector we developed, based on the sample entropy, identified silence events similarly than manual annotation. Compared to ApneaLink, it was very sensitive to apneas (detecting 86.2%) and presented an 83.4% positive predictive value, but it missed about half the hypopnea episodes. This suggests that during some hypopneas the flow reduction is not reflected in sound. Nevertheless, our detector accurately recognizes silence events, which can provide valuable respiratory information related to the disease. These preliminary results show that mHealth devices and simple microphones are promising non-invasive tools for personalized sleep disorders management at home.

Keywords: Detectors, Manuals, Sleep apnea, Microphones, Labeling, Hospitals


Castillo, Y., Blanco, D., Whitney, J., Mersky, B., Jané, R., (2017). Characterization of a tooth microphone coupled to an oral appliance device: A new system for monitoring OSA patients Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Seogwipo, South Korea) , 1543-1546

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent chronic disease, especially in elderly and obese populations. Despite constituting a serious health, social and economic problem, most patients remain undiagnosed and untreated due to limitations in current equipment. In this work, we propose a novel method to diagnose OSA and monitor therapy adherence and effectiveness at home in a non-invasive and inexpensive way: combining acoustic analysis of breathing and snoring sounds with oral appliance therapy (OA). Audiodontics has introduced a new sensor, a tooth microphone coupled to an OA device, which is the main pillar of this system. The objective of this work is to characterize the response of this sensor, comparing it with a commercial tracheal microphone (Biopac transducer). Signals containing OSA-related sounds were acquired simultaneously with the two microphones for that purpose. They were processed and analyzed in time, frequency and time-frequency domains, in a custom MATLAB interface. We carried out a single-event approach focused on breaths, snores and apnea episodes. We found that the quality of the signals obtained by both microphones was quite similar, although the tooth microphone spectrum concentrated more energy at the high-frequency band. This opens a new field of study about high-frequency components of snores and breathing sounds. These characteristics, together with its intraoral position, wireless option and combination with customizable OAs, give the tooth microphone a great potential to reduce the impact of sleep disorders, by enabling prompt detection and continuous monitoring of patients at home.

Keywords: Microphones, Teeth, Sleep apnea, Time-frequency analysis, Signal to noise ratio, Monitoring, Acoustics


Camara, M. A., Castillo, Y., Blanco-Almazan, D., Estrada, L., Jane, R., (2017). MHealth tools for monitoring Obstructive Sleep Apnea patients at home: Proof-of-concept Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) 39th Annual International Conference of the IEEE , IEEE (Seogwipo, South Korea) , 1555-1558

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder that affects mainly the adult and elderly population. Due to the high percentage of patients who remain undiagnosed and untreated because of limitations of current diagnosis methods, the management of OSA is an important social, scientific and economic problem that will be difficult to be assumed by health systems. On the other hand, smartphone platforms (mHealth systems) are being considered as an innovative solution, thanks to the integration of the essential sensors to obtain clinically relevant parameters in the same device or in combination with wireless wearable devices.

Keywords: Sleep apnea, Microphones, Monitoring, Sensors, Accelerometers, Biomedical monitoring, Band-pass filters