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by Keyword: NAFLD


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Praktiknjo, M., Djayadi, N., Mohr, R., Schierwagen, R., Bischoff, J., Dold, L., Pohlmann, A., Schwarze-Zander, C., Wasmuth, J. C., Boesecke, C., Rockstroh, J. K., Trebicka, J., (2019). Fibroblast growth factor 21 is independently associated with severe hepatic steatosis in non-obese HIV-infected patients Liver International 39, (8), 1514-1520

Background: Severe hepatic steatosis shows a high prevalence and contributes to morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Known risk factors include obesity, dyslipidaemia and features of metabolic syndrome. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is involved with hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate FGF-21 as a biomarker for severe hepatic steatosis in non-obese HIV-infected patients. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, monocentric study including HIV-infected out-patients. Hepatic steatosis was measured via controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) using FibroScan 502 touch (ECHOSENS, France). Severe hepatic steatosis was defined at CAP ≥ 253 dB/m. Peripheral blood samples were collected and plasma was analysed for FGF-21. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected from patient's health records. Results: In total, 73 non-obese HIV-monoinfected patients were included in this study. Prevalence of severe hepatic steatosis was 41%. Patients with severe hepatic steatosis showed significantly higher levels of FGF-21. Univariate analysis revealed FGF-21, BMI, hyperlipidaemia, ALT levels and arterial hypertension as significant, while multivariate analysis showed only FGF-21, arterial hypertension and ALT levels as significant independent risk factors for severe hepatic steatosis. Conclusion: This study presents FGF-21 as an independent and stronger predictor of severe hepatic steatosis than blood lipids in HIV-infected patients. Moreover, arterial hypertension and ALT levels predict severe steatosis even in non-obese HIV-monoinfected patients. Furthermore, this study supports existing metabolic risk factors and expands them to non-obese HIV-infected patients.

Keywords: BMI, CAP, Dyslipidaemia, FGF-21, Fibroscan, HIV, Hyperlipidaemia, Liver, NAFLD, NASH, Steatosis


De Chiara, F., Checcllo, C. U., Ramón-Azcón, J., (2019). High protein diet and metabolic plasticity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Myths and truths Nutrients 11, (12), 2985

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by lipid accumulation within the liver affecting 1 in 4 people worldwide. As the new silent killer of the twenty-first century, NAFLD impacts on both the request and the availability of new liver donors. The liver is the first line of defense against endogenous and exogenous metabolites and toxins. It also retains the ability to switch between different metabolic pathways according to food type and availability. This ability becomes a disadvantage in obesogenic societies where most people choose a diet based on fats and carbohydrates while ignoring vitamins and fiber. The chronic exposure to fats and carbohydrates induces dramatic changes in the liver zonation and triggers the development of insulin resistance. Common believes on NAFLD and different diets are based either on epidemiological studies, or meta-analysis, which are not controlled evidences; in most of the cases, they are biased on test-subject type and their lifestyles. The highest success in reverting NAFLD can be attributed to diets based on high protein instead of carbohydrates. In this review, we discuss the impact of NAFLD on body metabolic plasticity. We also present a detailed analysis of the most recent studies that evaluate high-protein diets in NAFLD with a special focus on the liver and the skeletal muscle protein metabolisms.

Keywords: High protein diet, Low carbohydrates, NAFLD, NASH, Physical activity


Brol, M. J., Rösch, F., Schierwagen, R., Magdaleno, F., Uschner, F. E., Manekeller, S., Queck, A., Schwarzkopf, K., Odenthal, M., Drebber, U., Thiele, M., Lingohr, P., Plamper, A., Kristiansen, G., Lotersztajn, S., Krag, A., Klein, S., Rheinwalt, K. P., Trebicka, J., Galaxy, Consortium, (2019). Combination of CCL4 with alcoholic and metabolic injuries mimics human liver fibrosis American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 317, (2), G182-G194

Metabolic and alcoholic liver injuries result in nonalcoholic (NAFLD) or alcoholic (ALD) fatty liver disease, respectively. In particular, presence of fibrosis in NAFLD and ALD requires treatment, but development of drugs is hampered by the lack of suitable models with significant fibrosis. The carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) liver fibrosis model does not reflect human NAFLD or ALD, but CCl4 may serve as a fibrosis accelerator in addition to another injury. Ethanol in drinking water (16%) or Western diet (WD) were administered for 7 wk in mice either alone or in combination with CCl4 intoxications. Extent of fibrosis, steatosis, and inflammation was assessed by histology, transcription, and biochemistry. Furthermore, transcription of fibrosis, proliferation, and inflammation-related genes was studied on human liver samples with fibrosis resulting from hepatitis C virus infection (n = 7), NAFLD (n = 8), or ALD (n = 7). WD or ethanol alone induced only mild steatosis and inflammation. Combination of CCl4 and WD induced the most severe steatosis together with significant liver fibrosis and moderate inflammation. Combination of CCl4 and ethanol induced the strongest inflammation, with significant liver fibrosis and moderate steatosis. The relationship pattern between fibrosis, proliferation, and inflammation of human ALD was mostly similar in mice treated with CCl4 and ethanol. The combination of CCl4 intoxication with WD validates previous data suggesting it as an appropriate model for human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Especially, CCl4 plus ethanol for 7 wk induces ALD in mice, providing a model suitable for further basic research and drug testing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Alcoholic fatty liver disease with significant fibrosis is generated within 7 wk using carbon tetrachloride as a fibrosis accelerator and administering gradually ethanol (up to 16%) in mice. The similarity in the pattern of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis involved in alcoholic fatty liver disease to those of the human condition renders this mouse model suitable as a preclinical model for drug development.

Keywords: ASH, Liver fibrosis, NAFLD, NASH


Mohr, Raphael, Boesecke, Christoph, Dold, Leona, Schierwagen, Robert, Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne, Wasmuth, Jan-Christian, Weisensee, Insa, Rockstroh, Jürgen Kurt, Trebicka, Jonel, (2018). Return-to-health effect of modern combined antiretroviral therapy potentially predisposes HIV patients to hepatic steatosis Medicine 97, (17), e0462

Prevalence and risk factors for hepatic steatosis (HS) in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population of western countries are controversially discussed and potentially confounded by coinfection with viral hepatitis. Significant HS (more than 10% of hepatocytes) can be accurately assessed using controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) determination. Aim of this study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with significant HS in HIV monoinfected patients. A total of 364 HIV-infected patients (289 monoinfected) were included in this prospective, cross-sectional study. All patients underwent CAP determination. Steatosis was classified as S1 (significant steatosis) with CAP > 238 dB/m, S2 with CAP > 260 dB/m, and S3 with CAP > 292 dB/m. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the factors associated with HS in this cohort. Significant HS was detected in 118 monoinfected patients (149 in the total cohort). In the total cohort as well as in the monoinfected patients alone, HS grade distribution showed a similar pattern (S1:29%, S2:34%, and S3:37%). Interestingly, patients with HS had a longer history of HIV infection and combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Interalia, age, gender, ethnicity, and metabolic factors were strongly associated with HS, while body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were independently associated with significant HS. HS is highly prevalent among HIV monoinfected patients. Although metabolic risk factors, such as obesity and poorly controlled diabetes, are independently associated with HS in HIV monoinfected patients, cART and control of HIV seem to play an indirect role in the development of HS, probably through the return-to-health effect.

Keywords: CAP, cART, HIV monoinfection, liver injury, NAFLD