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by Keyword: Relaxin-2


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Beiert, T., Knappe, V., Tiyerili, V., Stöckigt, F., Effelsberg, V., Linhart, M., Steinmetz, M., Klein, S., Schierwagen, R., Trebicka, J., Roell, W., Nickenig, G., Schrickel, J. W., Andrié, R. P., (2018). Chronic lower-dose relaxin administration protects from arrhythmia in experimental myocardial infarction due to anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties International Journal of Cardiology 250, 21-28

Background: The peptide hormone relaxin-2 (RLX) exerts beneficial effects during myocardial ischemia, but functional data on lower-dose RLX in myocardial infarction (MI) is lacking. Therefore, we investigated the impact of 75 μg/kg/d RLX treatment on electrical vulnerability and left ventricular function in a mouse model of MI. Methods and results: Standardized cryoinfarction of the left anterior ventricular wall was performed in mice. A two week treatment period with vehicle or RLX via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps was started immediately after MI. The relaxin receptor RXFP1 was expressed on ventricular/atrial cardiomyocytes, myofibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial but not vascular smooth muscle cells of small coronary vessels. RLX treatment resulted in a significant reduction of ventricular tachycardia inducibility (vehicle: 91%, RLX: 18%, p < 0.0001) and increased epicardial conduction velocity in the left ventricle and borderzone. Furthermore, left ventricular function following MI was improved in RLX treated mice (left ventricular ejection fraction; vehicle: 41.1 ± 1.9%, RLX: 50.5 ± 3.5%, p = 0.04). Interestingly, scar formation was attenuated by RLX with decreased transcript expression of connective tissue growth factor. Transcript levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β were upregulated in hearts of vehicle treated animals compared to mice without MI. Application of RLX attenuated this inflammatory response. In addition, macrophage infiltration was reduced in the borderzone of RLX treated mice. Conclusion: Treatment with lower-dose RLX in mice prevents post-infarction ventricular tachycardia due to attenuation of scar formation and cardiac inflammation. Therefore, RLX could be evaluated as new therapeutic option in the treatment of MI.

Keywords: Arrhythmia, Myocardial infarction, Relaxin-2, Ventricular tachycardia


Beiert, T., Tiyerili, V., Knappe, V., Effelsberg, V., Linhart, M., Stöckigt, F., Klein, S., Schierwagen, R., Trebicka, J., Nickenig, G., Schrickel, J. W., Andrié, R. P., (2017). Relaxin reduces susceptibility to post-infarct atrial fibrillation in mice due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , 490, (3), 643-649

Background Relaxin-2 (RLX) is a peptide hormone that exerts beneficial anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects in diverse models of cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of RLX treatment on the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (AF) after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Mice with cryoinfarction of the left anterior ventricular wall were treated for two weeks with either RLX (75 μg/kg/d) or vehicle (sodium acetate) delivered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. Results RLX treatment significantly attenuated the increase in AF-inducibility following cryoinfarction and reduced the mean duration of AF episodes. Furthermore, epicardial mapping of both atria revealed an increase in conduction velocity. In addition to an attenuation of atrial hypertrophy, chronic application of RLX reduced atrial fibrosis, which was linked to a significant reduction in atrial mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor. Transcript levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β were reduced in RLX treated mice, but macrophage infiltration into atrial myocardium was similar in the vehicle and RLX treated groups. Conclusion Treatment with RLX in mice after MI reduces susceptibility to AF due to anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Because to these favorable actions, RLX may become a new therapeutic option in the treatment of AF, even when complicating MI.

Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, Atrial fibrosis, Myocardial infarction, Relaxin-2